WINDLINE Users Manual: Scientist

David C. Burnham

 

DRAFT 4/18/00

John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center

Research and Special Programs Administration

U. S. Department of Transportation

Cambridge, MA 02142

Interim Report

April 2000

This document is available to the public

through the National Technical Information

Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161

 


PREFACE

 

ABSTRACT

KEYWORDS: Wake turbulence, wake vortices, ground-wind anemometers, airport wind measurements, airport turbulence measurements

Author:  D.C. Burnham

TABLE OF CONTENTS


1.       INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 1

2.       INSTALLATION..................................................................................................................... 3

3.       USING WINDLINE................................................................................................................ 4

3.1     LOG INTO TEST SITE................................................................................................. 4

3.2     INITIALIZATION........................................................................................................... 4

3.2.1     Choice Of User............................................................................................... 4

3.2.2     Choices for New File........................................................................................ 4

3.2.2.1     Real Time File Current.Dat................................................................... 4

3.2.2.2     Real Time file Local.Dat....................................................................... 4

3.2.2.3     Simulation – One Arrival....................................................................... 5

3.2.2.4     Simulation – Two Arrivals..................................................................... 5

3.2.2.5     TASS Simulation................................................................................. 5

3.3     NEW FILE DISPLAY................................................................................................... 5

3.3.1     Two Arrival Simulation...................................................................................... 5

3.3.2     One Arrival Simulation..................................................................................... 7

3.4     OPEN FILE................................................................................................................ 8

3.4.1     List Files........................................................................................................ 9

3.5     TIME DISPLAY......................................................................................................... 10

3.5.1     Aircraft Noise................................................................................................ 10

3.5.2     Crosswind..................................................................................................... 11

3.5.3     Vertical Wind................................................................................................ 11

3.5.4     Headwind...................................................................................................... 11

3.5.5     Crosswind Limits........................................................................................... 12

3.5.6     Vortex-Induced Crosswind.............................................................................. 12

3.5.7     Lateral Position............................................................................................. 12

3.5.8     Lateral Position for 3 Lines............................................................................. 12

3.5.9     Height.......................................................................................................... 13

3.5.10   Circulation.................................................................................................... 13

3.5.11   Mean Square Error........................................................................................ 13

3.5.12   Lateral Transport Velocity............................................................................... 14

3.5.13   Vertical Transport Velocity............................................................................. 14

3.6     SPACE DISPLAY...................................................................................................... 15

3.6.1     Pilot’s View................................................................................................... 15

3.6.2     Controller’s View........................................................................................... 16

3.6.3     Crosswind..................................................................................................... 16

3.6.4     Headwind...................................................................................................... 17

3.6.5     Vertical Wind................................................................................................ 17

3.6.6     Crossection View.......................................................................................... 17

3.6.7     Plan View..................................................................................................... 18

3.6.8     Equal Axis Plan View.................................................................................... 18

3.6.9     Time History................................................................................................. 18

3.6.10   Navigation Buttons......................................................................................... 18

3.7     PROGRAM MENU.................................................................................................... 19

3.7.1     File Menu..................................................................................................... 19

3.7.1.1     New................................................................................................. 19

3.7.1.2     Open................................................................................................ 19

3.7.1.3     Close............................................................................................... 19

3.7.1.4     Save................................................................................................. 19

3.7.1.5     Print................................................................................................. 20

3.7.1.6     File List............................................................................................ 20

3.7.2     View Menu.................................................................................................... 20

3.7.3     Window Menu............................................................................................... 20

3.7.4     Help Menu.................................................................................................... 21

3.7.5     Setup Menu.................................................................................................. 21

3.8     MAIN TOOLBAR....................................................................................................... 22

3.8.1     New, Open, Save File.................................................................................... 22

3.8.2     Save Graphic................................................................................................ 22

3.8.3     Cut, Copy, Paste........................................................................................... 22

3.8.4     Print............................................................................................................. 22

3.8.5     Help............................................................................................................. 23

3.8.6     Secondary Vortices....................................................................................... 23

3.8.7     Multi Time Fit................................................................................................ 23

3.8.8     English Units................................................................................................ 23

3.8.9     Stop............................................................................................................. 23

3.8.10   Timed Processing.......................................................................................... 24

3.8.11   Increase/Decrease Line Number..................................................................... 24

3.9     SCIENCE TOOLBAR................................................................................................. 24

3.9.1     Save Graphic................................................................................................ 24

3.9.2     Save All-Times File........................................................................................ 24

3.9.3     Save Special Times File................................................................................. 24

3.9.4     Secondary Vortices....................................................................................... 25

3.9.5     Multi Time Fit................................................................................................ 25

3.9.6     Remove Glitches........................................................................................... 25

3.9.7     Plot DAS ID.................................................................................................. 25

3.9.8     Plot Message Time........................................................................................ 25

3.9.9     Timed Data Reading...................................................................................... 25

3.9.10   Batch Processing.......................................................................................... 26

3.9.11   Automatic Print............................................................................................. 26

3.9.12   Test Mode.................................................................................................... 26

3.9.13   Isometric Plot................................................................................................ 26

APPENDIX A -............................................................................................................................ A-1

REFERENCES........................................................................................................................... R-1



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figure                                                                                                                                            Page

Figure 1. Choices for User Dialog Box................................................................................................... 4

Figure 2. Choices for New File Dialog Box............................................................................................. 4

Figure 3. Airport Choice....................................................................................................................... 5

Figure 4. Crosswind Choice.................................................................................................................. 5

Figure 5. First Aircraft.......................................................................................................................... 5

Figure 6. Decay Time.......................................................................................................................... 5

Figure 7. Second Aircraft..................................................................................................................... 5

Figure 8. Complete Screen for Simulation of B74B-A321 Pair (20-Second Spacing) Landing at SFO in +2.0 m/s Crosswind.   6

Figure 9. Complete Screen for Simulation of B74B Landing on left Runway at FRA in +4.0 m/s Crosswind.. 7

Figure 10. Display for No Real-Time Access to Site; after Open File Selected........................................... 8

Figure 11. Open Dialog Box................................................................................................................. 8

Figure 12. All Files in Jfkdemo Folder.................................................................................................... 9

Figure 13. RM files in Jfkdemo Folder.................................................................................................... 9

Figure 14. All Files in Folder Frankfiurt_2_2........................................................................................... 9

Figure 15. Wake Parameters for JFK B74A Run RM980519.092............................................................ 10

Figure 16. Aircraft Noise for RM980519.092......................................................................................... 10

Figure 17. Crosswind for Run RM980519.092....................................................................................... 11

Figure 18. Vertical Wind for Run RM980519.092................................................................................... 11

Figure 19. Headwind for Run RM980519.092........................................................................................ 12

Figure 20. Lateral Positions for Three Lines for SFO Run rm000219.372................................................. 13

Figure 21. Mean Square Error for Run RM980519.092........................................................................... 13

Figure 22. Vertical and Lateral Transport Velocity................................................................................. 14

Figure 23. Multi-Time Fit to Run RM980519.092................................................................................... 14

Figure 24. Pilot’s View (Age = 50 Seconds) for Run RM000219.371....................................................... 15

Figure 25. Controller’s View for Figure 24............................................................................................. 16

Figure 26. Crosswind and Headwind (Pilot’s View) for SFO Run RM000219.372...................................... 16

Figure 27. Crosswind, Vertical Wind and Headwind for JFK Run RM980519.092...................................... 17

Figure 28. Crossection View (Pilot’s View) for SFO Run RM000219.372................................................. 17

Figure 29. Crossection View (Pilot’s View) for JFK Run RM980513.092.................................................. 17

Figure 30. Equal Axis Plan View for SFO Run RM000219.372............................................................... 18

Figure 31. Windline Menu................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 32. File Menu.......................................................................................................................... 19

Figure 33. SFO Subdirectory of My Documents.................................................................................... 20

Figure 34. 000219 Subdirectory of SFO............................................................................................... 20

Figure 35. Print Out of Figure 15......................................................................................................... 21

Figure 36. View Menu........................................................................................................................ 21

Figure 37. Window Menu.................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 38. Setup Menu....................................................................................................................... 21

Figure 39. Main Toolbar...................................................................................................................... 22

Figure 40. My Pictures Subdirectory................................................................................................... 22

Figure 41. Enhanced Metafile for Figure 15.......................................................................................... 23

Figure 42. Science Toolbar................................................................................................................. 24

Figure 43. Data Files in My Data Subdirectory..................................................................................... 25

LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                                                             Page

Table 1. Time Toolbar......................................................................................................................... 10

Table 2. Space Toolbar...................................................................................................................... 15

Table 3. Main Toolbar......................................................................................................................... 22

Table 4. Science Toolbar.................................................................................................................... 24


1.     INTRODUCTION


2.     INSTALLATION

3.     USING WINDLINE

This chapter describes the options available to “Scientist “ users of windline.

3.1     LOG INTO TEST SITE

To display the real-time data from a test site, the display computer must log into the test site Novell Netware network. The volume containing the wind line data must be mapped as a letter drive (usually I:). The real-time files are located in the RT subdirectory of the wind-line data volume (i.e., in I:\RT).

3.2     INITIALIZATION

3.2.1     Choice Of User

Figure 1 shows the dialog box that appears when windline is started. The default user is Pilot. To obtain all the options described in this manual, choose Scientist. Selecting “OK” exits from the dialog box.

Figure 1. Choices for User Dialog Box

3.2.2     Choices for New File

 

When Scientist is the selected user, the Choices for New File dialog box appears (see Figure 2). [Note that Windows multiple-document programs always start with a “new file.”] The following five choices are given for the windline new file. Selecting “OK” exits from the dialog box.

3.2.2.1     Real Time File Current.Dat

Current.Dat contains the data from the last arrival at the test site. This choice provides display for the real-time data from the test site.

3.2.2.2     Real Time file Local.Dat

Local.Dat contains the last two-second data block from the wind line at the test site. It is added as an option to allow the user to view the real-time data after the Current.Dat file has terminated at a wake age of 180 seconds. It has not yet been implemented, however.

Figure 2. Choices for New File Dialog Box

 

3.2.2.3     Simulation – One Arrival

The simulation option generates “ideal” wind line data, which has been used to help in software development and may be useful for “what if” studies.

The first choice in the simulation option is the airport to be simulated; a dropdown list (see Figure 3) shows the available choices.

 

A dropdown list is also available for the ambient crosswind (see Figure 4).

 

Next the aircraft is selected from a dropdown list (see Figure 5). For airports with two parallel runways (SFO or FRA), the aircraft can be assigned to the first or second runway.

Figure 3. Airport Choice

Figure 4. Crosswind Choice

 

Figure 5. First Aircraft

Finally, the wake decay time can be selected as an integer in a data entry box in Figure 6. The default decay time is 100 seconds. The initial circulation decays linearly to zero at the decay time.
  

3.2.2.4     Simulation – Two Arrivals

At airports with two parallel runways (SFO or FRA), it is possible to simulate a paired arrival by adding the parameters (see Figure 7) for a second arrival. The type is selected from a dropdown list and the delay after the first arrival by an integer data entry box.

Figure 6. Decay Time

Figure 7. Second Aircraft

3.2.2.5     TASS Simulation

The TASS simulation takes wind data from 2-D calculations of wake flow field for a DC-10 aircraft.

3.3     NEW FILE DISPLAY

After initialization, the new file choice is displayed. If the user is not logged into a field site and Current.Dat is selected, the two display windows will be blank (as shown later in Figure 10).

3.3.1     Two Arrival Simulation

Figure 8 shows the complete screen for a SFO simulation with a B74B landing on the left runway in a +2.0 m/s crosswind, followed by an A321 landing 20 seconds later on the right runway. The Scientist display consists of a time display window on the left and a space display window on the right (wake age selected at 26 seconds). The details of the time and space displays will be presented in Sections 3.5 and 3.6, respectively. The plot options selected in Figure 8 are the defaults set by the current version of windline (v2.5).

Figure 8. Complete Screen for Simulation of B74B-A321 Pair (20-Second Spacing) Landing at SFO in +2.0 m/s Crosswind.


In addition to the two display windows, windline has four toolbars for selecting options. The left and right toolbars deals with the time and space displays, respectively; they will be described in Sections 35. And 3.6, respectively. The top left toolbar is the standard Window program toolbar with some additional options added for windline; it will be described in Section 3.7. The top right toolbar contains processing options available only to the Scientist user; it will be described in Section 3.8.

A number of features of the two-arrival simulation can be noted in Figure:

1.    The vortex induced crosswind (third plot from top on left) decays to zero 100 seconds after the arrival.

2.    The lateral position versus age plot appears as the fourth plot from the top on the left and as the second plot from the top on the right. The right plot shows the arrival time of the second aircraft as a dashed line.

3.    In the lateral position plots, the +2.0 m/s crosswind blows the vortices in the positive direction.

4.    In the top plot on the right the starboard vortex is detected at all four wind lines; the slanted lateral position reflects the delay in the aircraft passing the successive wind lines. The wake from the B74B is far away from the A321 seen on the right runway.

5.    When the vortices of the two aircraft approach each other at age 70 seconds (starboard B74B vortex, port A321 vortex), they induce each other to rise.

3.3.2     One Arrival Simulation

Figure 9 shows a simulation of a B74B landing on the left runway at Frankfurt (FRA) in a +4.0 m/s crosswind. The space plot on the right is for age 34 seconds. Again the plots selected are the defaults set in the current version of windline (v2.5).

Figure 9. Complete Screen for Simulation of B74B Landing on left Runway at FRA in +4.0 m/s Crosswind.

The Frankfurt wind line installation differs from the US wind lines in that the spacing between anemometers is much larger. This spacing leads to ripples in the vortex-induced crosswind (bottom and third from bottom plots on left) and the vortices travel between anemometers.

The anemometers at SFO are too low to detect the vertical winds generated by wake vortices. The 15-m height of the FRA anemometers (see bottom plot on right).

3.4     OPEN FILE

Figure 10. Display for No Real-Time Access to Site; after Open File Selected

3.4.1 Run Files

An archived wind line file can be opened by clicking on Open under File at the top left of the display. Figure 10 shows the resulting display. Figure 11 shows an expanded view of the Open dialog Box. Most of the folders listed contain wind line data and are included on the distribution CD-ROM. The default extension for native windline files is “wla.” Such native files are saved whenever a regular windline file is opened.

Figure 11. Open Dialog Box

  3.4.2 List Files

Select the folder Jfkdemo and no .wla files are seen. Change “Files of type” to “All Files (*.*)” and Figure 12 is seen. The *.lst files are lists of run files. Selecting such a list will result in automatically processing one run file after another.

Figure 12. All Files in Jfkdemo Folder

Slide the window slider to the right and the windline RM files can be seen (see Figure 13). The RM files are labeled by date (yymmdd) and run number on the date. Select the desired run file (e.g., RM980519.092) and double click or click Open to process the run file.

Figure 13. RM files in Jfkdemo Folder

Figure 14 shows the files in the Frankfurt_2_2 folder of My Documents (Figure 11). The first is a list file for the entire folder. The run files are named by the date (yymmdd in first six chareacters) and the second of the day (final five characters, ignoring the “.”).

Figure 14. All Files in Folder Frankfiurt_2_2

Figure 15 shows some of the data from the file highlighted in Figure 13. The plots for vortex circulation, height, induced crosswind, and lateral position are included.

Figure 15. Wake Parameters for JFK B74A Run RM980519.092

3.5     TIME DISPLAY

Table 1.

Time Toolbar

Toolbar

Description

 

Aircraft Noise

 

 

Crosswind

 

 

Vertical Wind

 

 

Headwind

 

 

Crosswind Limits (Maximum, Median, Minimum)

 

Vortex-Induced Crosswind

 

 

Lateral Position

 

Lateral Position for 3 Lines

 

 

Height

 

 

Circulation

 

 

Mean Square Error

 

 

 

Lateral Transport Velocity

 

 

Vertical  Transport  Velocity

Table 1 shows the time toolbar, which selects the options for the time display. The selected options (i.e., buttons pushed) are those shown in Figure 15. The state of each button on the toolbar can be changed by a mouse click. Each of the options will be examined in the following sections. For most, examples will be shown for the same run depicted in Figure 15.

3.5.1     Aircraft Noise

The aircraft noise button selects the aircraft noise plot shown in Figure 16. The units are arbitrary (actually 0.1 Volts at the A/D converter). The spike at age = 0 seconds is the arrival. The rising noise level after 100 seconds is the noise from the next aircraft, which terminated this run before the maximum length of 180 seconds.

Figure 16. Aircraft Noise for RM980519.092

3.5.2     Crosswind

The crosswind button selects the top plot in Figure 17. The y-axis is labeled by the lateral position of the anemometers and the anemometer locations are indicated by hash marks on the left of the plot. The crosswind is plotted using the hash mark as the zero crosswind position. The scaling for crosswind is the same as in the bottom plot of Figure 17.

The crosswind plot shows the downwind vortex (positive crosswind in this case) traveling rapidly in the positive lateral position direction. The upwind vortex (negative crosswind in this case) follows the downwind vortex but travels at a slower speed.

Figure 17. Crosswind for Run RM980519.092

3.5.3     Vertical Wind

The vertical wind button selects the plot shown in Figure 18. As for the crosswind in Figure 17, the y-axis is the lateral position and the anemometer locations are marked with hash marks. Again the vertical wind scale is the same as the scale of the lower plot in Figure 17.

The vertical wind is up (positive) outside the two vortices and down (negative) between the vortices.

 

Figure 18. Vertical Wind for Run RM980519.092

3.5.4     Headwind

 The headwind button selects the bottom plot in Figure 19. Figure 19 also includes the lateral position plot at the top. When the headwind is selected, the locations of the headwind anemometers are plotted in the lateral position plot. The two plots are correlated by the color of the lines.

The run shown in Figure 19 occurred early in the morning when the nocturnal inversion was still present. The wake brought the headwind above the inversion down to the anemometer level where it could be measured. For example, the headwind near the extended runway centerline jumps up about 10 seconds after the aircraft arrival and remains grater than zero until wake age 55 seconds. In contrast, the headwind near +100 m lateral position jumps up at 25 seconds when the first vortex reaches +100 m and remains positive until 100 seconds. The maximum headwind is about 3 m/s.

Figure 19. Headwind for Run RM980519.092

3.5.5     Crosswind Limits

The crosswind limits button selects the bottom plot of Figure 17. The solid lines plot the maximum, median and minimum crosswind across the wind line (i.e., the crosswind values in the top plot of Figure 17). The median gives a plausible estimate of crosswind, even in the presence of wake vortices. The plus symbols in the crosswind limits plot show the fitted value of crosswind from the least-square fit to the data.

3.5.6     Vortex-Induced Crosswind

The vortex-induced crosswind button selects the second from the bottom plot in Figure 15. The vortex-induced crosswind is simply the difference (made positive) between the maximum or minimum crosswind and the median crosswind in Figure 17.

The vortex-induced crosswind (VICW) is a robust indicator of the strength of the wind line signals and is used to start and stop vortex tracking. VICW is used to color code the vortex plotting points according to the relationship between VICW and the tracking threshold. When VICW is well above the tracking threshold the points are red. When VICW is just above the tracking threshold, the color is green. In between values for VICW are colored orange or yellow.

3.5.7     Lateral Position

The lateral position button selects the bottom plot in Figure 15 (or the top plot in Figure 19). The lateral position is the result of a least-square fit to the wind field.

The two vortices transport off the positive end of the wind line.

3.5.8     Lateral Position for 3 Lines

The standard time plots shows data for one wind line at a time. This restriction makes it difficult to compare the data from the three currently active wind lines at SFO. The lateral position for 3 lines button selects the plots shown in Figure 20, for a paired arrival at SFO. Whereas all four vortices can be seen for Line 1, only two vortices are seen for Lines 2 and 3, since they cover only the region between the two runways.

Figure 20. Lateral Positions for Three Lines for SFO Run rm000219.372

3.5.9     Height

The lateral position button selects the second from the top plot in Figure 15. The vortex height is the result of a least-square fit to the wind field. The height are circulation are not necessarily well defined by the fit since both can vary together to give much the same wind profile.

The aircraft height is roughly 55 to 60 m at the JFK wind line. The wake is generally observed to descent toward the ground, as expected.

3.5.10     Circulation

The circulation button selects the top plot in Figure 15. The circulation is determined by a least-square fit to the wind field. As mentioned for height, the circulation value from the fit is not as robust as the lateral position value.

The observed circulation is more or less constant until 30 seconds and then decays.

3.5.11     Mean Square Error

The mean square error button selects the plot shown in Figure 20, which shows the residual mean square error of the fit, averages over all the crosswind and vertical wind measurements.

The error has a jump where the downwind vortex is dropped from the fit when it passes the end of the wind line.

Figure 21. Mean Square Error for Run RM980519.092

3.5.12     Lateral Transport Velocity

The lateral transport button adds lateral transport velocity to the crosswind limits plot, as shown in the bottom plot of Figure 22. The vertical and lateral transport velocities are part of the least-square fit only when the multiple time option (Section 3.8.7) is selected. Figure 23 shows the data in Figures 15 and 21 for a multiple time fit over 22 seconds (rather than the 10-second average in the standard fit shown in the other plots of this section). The purpose of the multi-time fit is to smooth the time to time scatter in the data and to avoid the smearing caused by the 10-second average for rapidly moving vortices. The biggest change noted in Figure 23 in the increase in the mean square error. Some may be due to the greater variance in the 2-second data used in the fit, but most is caused by the requirement of linear variation in the fit parameters.

 

Figure 22. Vertical and Lateral Transport Velocity

 

In ground effect the two vortices normally separate because of the interaction with the ground. The mean lateral transport velocity should be equal to the ambient crosswind. In Figure 22 (bottom) it is clear that the mean lateral transport velocity is considerably greater (perhaps 2 m/s) than the ambient crosswind at the height of the wind line anemometers. The difference is likely due to the vertical wind shear associated with nocturnal inversions, that was also noted in the headwind (Figure 19).

3.5.13     Vertical Transport Velocity

The vertical transport button adds the vertical transport plot shown in the top plot of Figure 22.

The vertical transport velocity is negative for the first part of the time history, as would be expected for descending vortices.

Figure 23. Multi-Time Fit to Run RM980519.092

3.6     SPACE DISPLAY

Table 2. Space Toolbar

Toolbar

Description

Pilot’s View

Controller’s View

Crosswind

Headwind

Vertical Wind

Crossection View

Plan View

Equal Axis

Plan View

Time History

Back 5

Time Steps

Back 1

Time Step

Forward 1

Time Step

Forward 5

Time Steps

Increase

Line Number

Decrease

Line Number

 

Table 2 shows the space toolbar, which selects the options for the space display. Each of the options will be examined in the following sections. Examples will be taken from the paired arrival run in Figure 20, where the two arrivals were separated by the maximum amount (50 seconds) in the pair definition. Most of the space displays (except time history) are for a particular wake age.

3.6.1     Pilot’s View

Figure 24 shows the pilot’s view for the plan view (top) and the time history plot (bottom). The pilot’s view is looking toward the runways. The time shown is for 56 seconds, just after the second aircraft has landed on Runway 28R.

Figure 24. Pilot’s View (Age = 50 Seconds) for Run RM000219.371

3.6.2     Controller’s View

 

Figure 25 shows the controller’s view for the Figure 24. The direction of view is reversed; both plotting axes in the plan view are reversed. The controller looks out toward the ends of the runways.

Figure 25. Controller’s View for Figure 24

3.6.3     Crosswind

The crosswind button selects the top plot in Figure 26, which shows the crosswind profiles at age = 56 seconds for the same run shown in Figure 24 (pilot’s view). For multiple line sites like SFO, the crosswind plot overlays the crosswind profiles for all the; although the different lines are color coded according to the legend at the top of the figure, the individual profiles may be difficult to distinguish. The top plot in Figure 27 shows a case for JFK, where there is only a single wind line.

The crosswind signature shortly after the vortex pair reaches the ground (right pair in Figure 26 and the pair in Figure 27) shows negative and positive peaks with no separation. After interaction with the ground, the two vortices separate as seen for the left pair of Figure 26.

Figure 26. Crosswind and Headwind (Pilot’s View) for SFO Run RM000219.372

 3.6.4     Headwind

The headwind button selects the plots at the bottom of Figures 26 and 27. Since the headwind measurements are primarily for meteorological purposes (or jet blast from departures at SFO), the headwind anemometers are typically sparse.

 

 However, both Figures 26 and 27 show signs that the wake has some headwind profile in addition to the distinctive crosswind profile of a vortex pair.

Figure 27. Crosswind, Vertical Wind and Headwind for JFK Run RM980519.092

3.6.5     Vertical Wind

The vertical wind button selects the middle plot of Figure 27. The vertical wind profile shows the characteristic downwind between the vortex pair. Since the the SFO anemometers are too close to the ground to register any significant vertical wind, the vertical wind plot is omitted from Figure 26. The taller poles at JFK lead to the signature noted in Figure 27.

3.6.6     Crossection View

The crossection button selects the plot shown in Figure 28, which is for Line 1 for the same wake age as Figures 24 and 26.

The crossection plot shows the vortex locations in the height / lateral position plane. It also shows wind barbs of crosswind and vertical wind on the tops of the anemometer poles. Since the SFO poles are less than 1 m high, this feature is not particularly useful for SFO.

Figure 28. Crossection View (Pilot’s View) for SFO Run RM000219.372

 Figure 29 shows the crossection plot for the JFK run used in Figure 27. Here the poles are high enough that the wind barbs make sense. The taller poles also had vertical wind anemometers.

Figure 29. Crossection View (Pilot’s View) for JFK Run RM980513.092

 

3.6.7     Plan View

The plan view button selects the plot shown at the top of Figures 24 and 25. This view shows the location of the wind lines, the runways and the aircraft (when in view). The vortices are plotted on the wind lines and connected with lines for multiple detections of the same vortex. The horizontal axis of the plan view is scaled to match the lateral position scales of the other space plots. The vertical axis is scaled to give a reasonable plot height. The vertical scale is typically greatly compressed compared to the horizontal scale.

3.6.8     Equal Axis Plan View

The equal axis plan view button selects the view shown in Figure 30. The plots of Figures 24 and 25 are rotated 90 degrees to permit the two coordinates to be plotted with the same scale.

Figure 30. Equal Axis Plan View for SFO Run RM000219.372

 

3.6.9      Time History

The time history button selects the bottom plots shown in Figures 24 and 25. This plot is essentially the same as the space plot for lateral position (Figure 15, bottom plot) but rotated by 90 degrees and rescaled. The plots for two aircraft arrivals show a dashed line at the time of the second arrival. The time history plot is for a single wind line.

3.6.10      Navigation Buttons

The bottom six buttons on the space toolbar are for nagivation through the space plots. The upper four move in time by increments of 1 or 5 time steps. The bottom two move through the wind line choices.

3.7     PROGRAM MENU

Figure 31 shows the windline menu, which has the standard selections for a Windows program. Only the “Edit” menu is unused by windline.

Figure 31. Windline Menu

3.7.1     File Menu

Figure 32 shows the File Menu, which is standard for Windows programs. Many of these options are essential for using windline.

3.7.1.1     New

The New option selects a new document, i.e., a new run file, according to the choices described in Figure 2 (Section 3.2.2). The New File choices must be set before New is selected.

3.7.1.2     Open

The Open option selects an existing document, i.e., an existing run file, and leads to the dialog box shown in Figures 10 and 11 (Section 3.4).

3.7.1.3     Close

The Close option closes the currently viewed document and deletes its two display windows. It is useful for returning to the two displays of the previous document. Using the Window option to change the active view will result in mixed displays from different documents.

Figure 32. File Menu

 

3.7.1.4     Save

The Save and Save As options are not functional. Windline can open the normal run files generated by other programs and automatically saves them in native, object-oriented Windows format (extension wla) which contain the configuration and data for the run, but not the processed data. The wla files can then be opened by windline and require no configuration files.

The wla files are stored in a subdirectory of My Documents by airport (see Figure 11). Figure 33 shows the SFO subdirectory.

Figure 33. SFO Subdirectory of My Documents

Within the airport subdirectory, the wla files are stored by date. Figure 34 shows the 000219 subdirectory of SFO.

The wla files are labeled by airport, runway, date and time.

Figure 34. 000219 Subdirectory of SFO

 3.7.1.5     Print

The Print, Print Preview and Print Setup options are all functional. They apply to the active view. For example, Figure 35 shows the print out of the view shown in Figure 15. The print out is a faithful representation of the screen. The font is slightly larger and, of course, the print resolution is higher than the screen resolution.

Figure 35. Print Out of Figure 15

 

 3.7.1.6     File List

The bottom of Figure 32 lists the 12 previously opened files. They can be reselected directly without going through all the various directories of the Open option.

3.7.2     View Menu

Figure 36 shows the View Menu, with Time Plot Options selected. The first five options of the View Menu control the appearance of the toolbars or the status bar. The selected options are checked. The final three options select display or processing options. Since the toolbars are more convenient for selecting program options, the menu system has not been kept up to date with the toolbar options nor has single character activation been enabled for most options.

Figure 36. View Menu

 3.7.3     Window Menu

The Window Menu, shown in Figure 37 with some of the documents used in this manual, permits the user to change the active view.

3.7.4     Help Menu

The Help Menu simply tells the program version number.

Figure 37. Window Menu

 

3.7.5     Setup Menu

The Setup Menu is shown in Figure 38. After windline has started, this is the only place to change the New File Choices (Figure 2) or the Display Preferences (Figure 1).

Figure 38. Setup Menu

3.8     MAIN TOOLBAR

The main toolbar is shown in Figure 39 and, in rotated form, in Table 3, which describes the toolbar buttons.

Figure 39. Main Toolbar

Table 3. Main Toolbar

Toolbar

 

Description

New File

Open File

Save

Save Graphic

Cut

Copy

Paste

Print

Help

Secondary Vortices

Multi Time Fit

English Units

Stop

Timed Processing

Increase Line Number

Decrease Line Number

3.8.1     New, Open, Save File

The first three buttons on the toolbar give the same file options as the Menu.

3.8.2     Save Graphic

The Save Graphic button saves the active view in an Enhanced Windows Metafile (extension = emf), which can be imported by Microsoft Office 97 or later. The metafiles are located in the My Pictures subdirectory of My Documents. Figure 40 shows some sample emf files.

The file names are constructed from the airport, date, time, display type (Time or Space) and, for Space displays, wake age.

Figure 40. My Pictures Subdirectory

 

 

Figure 41 shows the metafile version of Figure 15 (only JFK file in Figure 40). It faithfully represents the plot, but the font is too compressed.

3.8.3     Cut, Copy, Paste

Cut, Copy and Paste are not enabled.

3.8.4     Print

The Print button was described with the Menu (Section 3.7.1.5)

3.8.5     Help

The Help button leads to the version number.

Figure 41. Enhanced Metafile for Figure 15

  

3.8.6     Secondary Vortices

The Secondary Vortices button adds additional vortices to the least-square fit. When a wake vortex interacts with the boundary at the ground, it can detach the boundary layer and create a secondary vortex of opposite sign vorticity. The secondary vortices are located outside the two primary vortices.

The secondary vortices option is disabled for wind lines with two parallel runways, since the possible number of vortices becomes eight, which is beyond the current scope of windline.

3.8.7     Multi Time Fit

The normal least-square fit deals with wind field at one wake age (normally averaged over ten seconds to reduce fluctuations). The single-age fit can lead to erratic vortex behavior and the ten-second average can smear out the wind field for rapidly moving vortices. The multiple time fit (see also section 3.5.12) adds rate parameters to the fit and fits the raw two-second wind field at a number of successive times. The default number of two-second times is the same as the averaging time for normal processing, but can be increased by adding a parameter to the processing parameter file param001.dat. The amount of computing is greatly increased for the multi-time fit and the chance of the fit not converging seems slightly greater than for a normal fit.

3.8.8     English Units

The internal calculations in windline use metric units. The English Units button changes the displays to English units (feet for distance, knots for speed).

3.8.9     Stop

The stop button terminates processing when the timed processing option (next button) is selected.

3.8.10     Timed Processing

The timed processing button specifies that the processing of an opened file is timed with the computer’s clock. To make the display more user friendly, a shorter time between data points is used when no vortices are being tracked. If timed processing is not selected, the entire file is processed before it is displayed.

Timed processing is necessary for a real-time display.

3.8.11     Increase/Decrease Line Number

The final two buttons permit the user to change the line number in plots showing a single wind line’s data (for sites with multiple lines).

3.9     SCIENCE TOOLBAR

Figure 42. Science Toolbar

Figure 42 shows the Science Toolbar and Table 4 describes the toolbar buttons. In general, the science toolbar presents options that are nor of interest to most users.

 

Table 4. Science Toolbar

Toolbar

 

Description

Save Graphic

Save All-Times File

Save Special-Times File

Secondary Vortices

Multi Time Fit

Remove Glitches

Plot DAS ID

Plot Message Times

Timed Data Reading

Batch Processing

Automatic Print

Test Mode

Isometric Plot

3.9.1     Save Graphic

The Save Graphic button was described in Section 3.8.2. The saving a graphic file is a technical option suited for the Science Toolbar, but is needed on the Main Toolbar to permit saving pictures of the Pilot’s and Controller’s displays.

3.9.2     Save All-Times File

This button and the next save processed data for the current document (i.e., run) to the My Data Subdirectory of My Documents. The files are saved in separate subdirectories for each airport. The bottom six files in Figure 43 are for three individual runs at SFO. The files are named by airport, date, time, fit type (V4 means normal 4-vortex fit) and type of file (all for All-Times and fit for Special-Times).

Figure 43. Data Files in My Data Subdirectory

The All-times button saves data every two seconds, including all detected vortices.

3.9.3     Save Special Times File

The Special-Times button saves a file with the following data:

1.    Ages at multiples of 10 seconds,

2.    Times of maximum vortex-induced crosswind,

3.    Time for maximum in sum of vortex-induced crosswind for vortex pair (and time for 80 percent of maximum),

4.    Times when vortex-induced crosswind was last above limits of 4, 3, 2 and 1.5 m/s, and

5.    Last detection of a vortex.

 

3.9.4     Secondary Vortices

The Secondary Vortices button was described in Section 3.8.6. Note that, this button and the following should probably be removed from the Main Toolbar, since they represent technical details.

3.9.5     Multi Time Fit

The Multi Time Fit button was described in Section 3.8.7.

3.9.6     Remove Glitches

The Remove Glitches button removes 2-second wind components with magnitude above 25 m/s from the 10-second data averages.

3.9.7     Plot DAS ID

Each binary data message from the Campbell Scientific data loggers has an ID that should remain fixed. The Plot DAS ID button creates a time plot for these messages. The plot can be used to assess message validity.

3.9.8     Plot Message Time

Each binary data message from the Campbell Scientific data loggers has a prefix added to record the second when the message was received. The Plot Message Time button creates a time plot for these seconds. The plot can be used to assess the time variability of the messages from different data loggers and to detect missing messages.

3.9.9     Timed Data Reading

Normally all the available data is read from a data file. Since the real-time file must be read regularly to get new data, this button was added to give the same times reading capability for existing data files. This option was used for debugging at one time and has no particular use in data processing. The Timed Processing button (Section 3.8.10) takes care of any timed data processing needs.

3.9.10     Batch Processing

The Batch Processing button enables automatic processing of a list of run files (Section 3.4.1). In particular, both types of processed data files (Sections 3.9.2 and 3.9.3) are generated. In contrast to the single-run files of Sections 3.9.2 and 3.9.3, the files contain all the data from the runs in the list file. In Figure 43, the top eight files are batch processing files. They are named by the name of the list file instead of the date and time of the run.

3.9.11     Automatic Print

The Automatic Print button works with run list files (Section 3.4.1) and prints the time plot at the end of every run. Timed processing is normally turned off for this option. This option is useful for generating hard copies for s sequence of runs.

3.9.12     Test Mode

The Test Mode button adds a lot of processing information to the display headers. It is used for debugging.

3.9.13     Isometric Plot

The Isometric Plot button is not enabled. It is intended for an isometric space plot (multiple crossection plots) for sites with multiple wind lines.


APPENDIX A -

 

REFERENCES